1. Submitting your paper
  2. Submission categories
  3. General submission guidelines
  4. Manuscript components
  5. Other useful information
  6. References



The journal has an online submission and peer-review website. To submit a paper, point your internet browser to and follow the on-screen instructions. If you have not used the site, you first need to visit it and register. The corresponding author is the person who enters the manuscript details and uploads the submission files on the journal site. In exceptional circumstances you can submit to and the Editorial Office will register your manuscript into the system. At the time of submission, complete contact information (postal/mail address, e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers) for the corresponding author is required. First and last names, e-mail addresses, and institutional affiliations of all coauthors are also required.  If you have any technical problems or questions, please contact Rogers Kaligande on email:  Editorial queries can be sent to the Editor,  YB Mlombe, at


Copyright: in accordance with copyright regulations, submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been previously published (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all the authors and, in many cases, by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work has been carried out. Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:


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Reproduced Material: AfJHO does not republish text, tables, figures, or other material from other publishers, except under rare circumstances.

Disclosure of results at a meeting: presentation of data at a scientific meeting, as a poster, abstract, orally, on a CD, or as an abstract on the web, has no conflict with submission to AfJHO. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g. investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript.


Press release: your submission could be chosen for the journal press release, and even if it is not, there may be inquiries from the media, so it is best to be available for comment. You will receive advance notice if your paper is included in our press release.


Data storage: authors may be asked to provide the raw data for research papers under review, and up to 10 years after publication.


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Original Contribution


These reports include randomized trials (see Clinical Trial Section below), intervention studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, other observational studies, surveys with high response rates (see Survey Research Section), cost-effectiveness analyses and decision analyses (see Reports of Cost effectiveness Analyses and Decision Analyses Section), and studies of screening and diagnostic tests (see also Reports of Diagnostic Tests Section). Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria and/or participation or response rates, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a comment section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. Data included in research reports should be as timely and current as possible (see Timeliness of Data Section). A structured abstract is required; for more information, see Abstract Section. Recommended length: 3000-3500 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references).


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Clinical Trial


In these studies, individuals are randomly allocated to receive or not receive a preventive, therapeutic, or diagnostic intervention and then followed up to determine the effect of the intervention. All randomized clinical trials should include a flow diagram, and authors should provide a completed randomized trial checklist and a trial protocol. All clinical trials must be registered at an appropriate online public registry (see below) before submitting a manuscript based on the trial. For clinical trials starting patient enrollment after July 2005, trials must be registered before onset of enrollment. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase 1 trials), are exempt. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a comment section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. A structured abstract is required, and trial registration information (name, number, and URL) should be listed at the end of the abstract. Recommended length: 3000-3500 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references).

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Trial Registration: examples of acceptable trial registries include the following:;;;;


CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist: manuscripts reporting the results of RCTs should include the CONSORT flow diagram showing the progress of patients throughout the trial 1. The CONSORT checklist also should be completed and submitted with the manuscript. The CONSORT checklist is available at 


Reports of Diagnostic Tests


These manuscripts may be classified as Original Contributions, Brief Reports, or Research Letters. Authors of reports of diagnostic tests are encouraged to submit the STARD flow diagram and checklist 2.


Reports of Cost-effectiveness Analyses and Decision Analyses


These manuscripts may be classified as Original Contributions, Brief Reports, or Research Letters. Authors of reports of cost-effectiveness analyses and decision analyses must submit a copy of the decision tree comprising their model. This is for editorial evaluation and review, not for publication, unless it is included in the body of the manuscript itself.

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Systematic Review (Including Meta-analysis).


These manuscripts are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be searched for and selected systematically for inclusion and critically evaluated, and the search and selection process should be described in the paper. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source. The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within several months of manuscript submission. A structured abstract is required (see Abstract Section). Recommended length: 3000-4000 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references).


Short Report


These manuscripts are short reports of original studies or evaluations or unique, first-time reports of clinical case series. A concise report of a research study or audit, without Summary. For a short report, there is a maximum of two tables/figures in total and a maximum of five references. Recommended length: 400-800 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references).


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Case Report


AfJHO welcomes well-described reports of cases that can be used for educational purposes or that describe unusual features of the disease, its treatment, transmission or control. They should have no more than 1000 words and should beorganized in two separate sections; Section 1: Presentation of the Case, Section 2: Discussion of the case (i.e. diagnosis, relevant positive and negative findings from history, examination and investigation), References and Tables/Figures.


News/Blood diseases/Cancer and Society


Reports in this section are written by professional journalists or commissioned contributors, but if you know of a timely and relevant haematology and oncology-related topic or of an event that might be of interest, please contact the Editor.


Special Communication


These manuscripts describe an important issue in haematology and oncology in a scholarly, thorough, well-referenced, systematic or evidence-based manner. These may concern clinical and laboratory medicine, public health, health policy, or medical research. Recommended length: up to 3000 words (not including tables, figures, or references).


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These papers may address virtually any important topic in haematology and oncology and generally are not linked to a specific article. Commentaries should be well focused, scholarly, and clearly presented and generally should have no more than 3 authors. Recommended length: 1500-2000 words, with 1 table or figure, approximately 25 references.


Personal View


These should be 2000-4000 words in length, with a maximum of 75 references. These opinion pieces may reflect an individual perception, involvement, or contribution to haematology and oncology, and should be prepared in a similar way to a Review. Unsolicited contributions are welcome, although please contact the Editor before submission to ensure that the proposed topic is within the remit of the journal.


Health-care Development


Health-care Research manuscripts should follow the same guidelines as a Personal View but should cover developments in haematology or oncology related to policy, treatment guideline development, or economics. Other related topics will be considered. Please contact the Editor before submitting to ensure the proposed topic is suitable.


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Letter to the Editor


Letters discussing a recent AfJHO article will have the best chance of acceptance. They should not exceed 400 words of text and 5 references. They should be double-spaced and a word count should be provided. The text of letters should include the names, academic degrees, and primary institutional affiliations for all authors, and the e-mail address for the corresponding author.




A conversation between the writer(s) and a person whose work or view may be of interest to readers of AfJHO.


Postgraduate Corner


This is devoted to postgraduate medical education and training. It provides an ongoing forum for discourse on educational, professional, and scientific topics. Manuscripts should be limited to fewer than 2000 words. Manuscripts undergo internal review by the editor. Authors interested in submitting in the Postgraduate Corner should contact the editorial office prior to manuscript preparation and submission by sending an e-mail to


Book and Media Reviews


Reviews of books and new media are invited by the editor and may be submitted by e-mail or as attachments to e-mail to


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Any substantial error in a published paper will be corrected as soon as possible. Blame is not apportioned; the main objective is to set the record straight.


Other categories


Questions about any other categories of articles should be directed to the editorial office.



Covering letter


When submitting your manuscript via the website, please input your cover letter at the "Enter comments" stage. Include complete contact information for the corresponding author (postal/mail address, e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers) and whether the authors have published or submitted any related papers from the same study. Indicate here what concessions you might be prepared to make to shorten your paper. Remember that the full paper can be reviewed and a shorter version published; a table or figure, or further references, for example, can be left out of the printed version but published on our website or made available from the authors.


Revised version of a paper should also be accompanied by a covering letter. The authors should state clearly and precisely every step taken in accordance with the reviewers’ requests. The description should be listed on a numbered basis, in the order of reviewers’ comments. Altered paragraphs in the new version of the manuscript should be specified using page and paragraph numbers. Paragraph on top of a page is considered No. 1, even if it does not begin on that page. The “Track Changes” Review tool in Microsoft word may also be used to show changes in the new version of the manuscript.


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Authorship Criteria


Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. Authorship credit should be based only on: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met 3. Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship. The order of authorship on the byline should be a joint decision of the coauthors. Authors should be prepared to explain the order in which authors are listed. The AfJHO must be assured that all the authors included on an article do fulfill these criteria of authorship. We also must be assured that there is no one else who fulfils these criteria but has not been included as an author.


Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent


For human or animal experimental investigations, formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed 4. For investigations of human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e. oral or written).

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Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, and Pedigrees


A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees. The statement should be submitted with the manuscript and indicated in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to deidentify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.


Patient Consent Form


Please contact AfJHO office on


Timeliness of Data


Data included in research reports submitted to AfJHO should be as timely and current as possible 5. Manuscripts based on data from randomized controlled trials should be reported as soon as possible after the trial has ended, ideally within 1 year after follow-up has been completed. For cohort studies, the date of final follow-up should be no more than 3 to 4 years before manuscript submission. Likewise, data used in case-control or cross sectional studies should have been collected as recently as possible, but certainly less than 3 to 4 years previously. Authors of manuscripts that report data that have been collected more than 3 to 4 years previously should provide an explanation regarding the relevance of the information in light of current knowledge and medical practice.


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Survey Research


Manuscripts reporting survey data, such as studies involving patients, clinicians, the public, or others, should report data collected as recently as possible, ideally within the previous 2 years 6. Survey studies should have sufficient response rates (generally at least 60%) and appropriate characterisation of nonresponders to ensure that nonresponse bias does not threaten the validity of the findings. For most surveys, such as those conducted by telephone, personal interviews (e.g. drawn from a sample of households), mail, email, or via the Web, authors are encouraged to report the survey outcome rates using standard definitions and metrics.


Manuscript Style


Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals 3.


Recommended File Sizes


Individual file sizes should not exceed 1 MB, with the total size for all files not exceeding 5 MB (not including any video files).


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Manuscript File Formats


For submission and review, acceptable manuscript file formats include Word, WordPerfect, PDF, EPS, Text, Postscript, or RTF format. Use 12-point font size, double-space text, and leave right margins unjustified (ragged).




Include a title page; second page (abstract, keywords, trial identifying number and name of registration database in case of a clinical trial); text (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion); acknowledgments; references; and as appropriate, tables (each table complete with title and footnotes on a separate page), figures and figure legends. Start each of these sections on a new page, numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.


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Title Page


The Title Page should include a word count for text only, the title (concise and informative, not to exceed 80 characters in length); the first and last name(s) of author(s) and appointments; and a short running head of not more than 40 characters (count letters and spaces) placed at the foot of the page and identified. If authors belong to several different institutions, superscript digits should be used to relate the authors’ names to respective institutions. The present address of any author, if different from the place work was done, should be shown. The name, address (including e-mail), telephone and fax numbers of the author to whom correspondence should be addressed must be provided.


Title: the title is the most important summary of a scientific article. The title should also include information on the scope of investigation, e.g. the type of study (clinical, experimental, epidemiological) average follow-up time, etc. If animal or cadaver experiments are reported, the title should carry this information.


Second page


The second page should contain the Abstract and six to ten key words. In selecting key words, the authors should strictly refer to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of the Index Medicus.


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Abstract: AfJHO requires that the authors prepare a structured abstract of not more than 300 words. Abstracts are not required for editorials, commentaries, and some special features. The abstract should include (at least) four headings: Aim. State explicitly and specifically the purpose of the study. Methods. Concisely and systematically list the basic procedures, selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, methods of observation and analysis. Avoid listing of common or irrelevant methods; enable the reader to fathom the essence of your procedure(s) and methods. The essential data on patient characteristics belong here, not in the Results section. Results. List your basic results without any introduction. Only essential statistical significances should be added in brackets. Draw no conclusions as yet: they belong into the next section. Conclusion. List your conclusions in a short, clear and simple manner. State only those conclusions that stem directly from the results shown in the paper. Rather than summarizing the data, conclude from them. In the case of reports on clinical trials, the abstract should also include the information on the identifying number of the trial and the name of the registration database.




Introduction:  the Introduction section should include the hypothesis and specific protocol objectives. The author should briefly introduce the problem, particularly emphasizing the level of knowledge about the problem at the beginning of the investigation. Continue logically, and finish the section with a short description of the aim of the study. Introduction section should generally not exceed one typewritten page. This is no place to write a review of the field or to mention textbooks commonplaces: you are addressing an educated reader, and this section should introduce him/her to the specific problem investigated.


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Patients/material and methods: this section need not be brief. Use of subheadings is advised. For clinical trials define: (a) planned study population, including controls; (b) inclusion and exclusion criteria;  (c) planned subgroup analyses; (d) prognostic factors that may affect study results;  (e) outcome measures and minimum difference(s)  to be considered clinically important; (f) planned treatment interventions; (g) method of assignment of subjects to treatments (e.g. randomization method, blinding or masking procedure, matching criteria); (h) planned sample size and power calculations; (i) rules for stopping the study; and (j) methods of statistical analysis in sufficient detail to permit replication. It is important to specify exactly how the patients were selected. The patients should be characterized in detail so as to avoid confusion about uncontrolled variables.


Give the reasons for a given patient’s exclusion from the follow-up, and analyze whether or not he/she was a representative of the primary series. A follow-up close to 100 percent is required in most studies. Follow-up time should generally not be less than 2 years. Give the exact dates of the study. Control group(s) should be described as precisely as experimental groups. For animals, the species, sex, age, breed, and physiologic condition should be given. Names of chemicals and devices used should be followed by the information on the manufacturer (name, city, and country) set in parentheses. Give generic names for the drugs and chemicals, followed by their commercial names in brackets. In reports on the experiments on human subjects, it should be indicated whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) or with the Helsinki Declaration 6, as revised in 1975 and 1983. Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. Permission to use patient’s pictures and their informed consent must accompany such material. All human and animal studies must have been approved by the authors’ Institutional Review Board.


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Statistics: list the tests used. Relate each test to a particular data analysis. This should be repeated in the Results section. Statistical significances should be shown along with the data in the text, as well as in tables and figures. Provide exact p-values, with three decimal places.


Role of the funding source: all sources of funding should be declared in the acknowledgment section. However, at the end of the Methods section, under a subheading “Role of the funding source”, authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. If the funding source had no such involvement, the authors should so state.


Results: a clinical study as conducted should include: (a) inclusive dates of accrual of study population; (b) sample size achieved; (c) how many subjects were excluded or withdrew, and the reasons; (d) demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population, including controls; and (e) how the study as conducted deviated from the study as planned, and the reasons (e.g. compliance).


Study findings should include: (a) estimates of treatment effects, stated as comparisons among treatment groups (e.g. differences in risks, rates or means of outcome measures, as well as exact p-values; (b) measures of precision for outcome measures and for estimates of treatment effects (confidence intervals, standard errors); (c) summary data and appropriate descriptive statistics; (d) complications of treatment; and (e) repository where original data can be obtained (e.g. principal investigator).


Key rules for writing the Results section are: (a) the text should be understandable without referring to the respective tables and figures, and vice versa; (b) however, the text should not simply repeat the data contained in the tables and figures; and (c) the text and data in tables and figures should be related to the statements in the text by means of reference marks.


Thus, it is best to describe the main findings in the text, and refer the reader to the tables and figures, implying that details are shown there. Information on significance and other statistical data should preferably be given in the tables and figures. Call experimental groups by their real (albeit maybe more descriptive/longer) names, rather than assigning them numbers or letters. The need for brevity should not clash with the requirement that all results be presented.

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Common mistakes in presenting Data: averages (means) should be followed by ±SD, and medians by ranges (in parentheses). Percentages should not be given when the total sample number is less than 100. Otherwise, use absolute numbers, decimal fractions or “one third,” “three quarters,” etc. Percentages above 10 usually do not need decimals. Details on the style of scientific writing can be found in several excellent books 7.


Discussion: the discussion section should include interpretation of study findings, and results considered in the context of results in other trials reported in the literature. This section has three main functions: (a) assessment of the results for their validity with respect to the hypothesis, relevance of methods, and significance of differences observed; (b) discussion of relevant literature providing evidence or counterevidence for your findings; and (c) assessment of the significance of the conclusions for the application in further research. Do not recapitulate your results, discuss them.


Abbreviations: do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text. Expand all abbreviations at first mention in the text.


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Units of Measure: conventional units of measure are preferred, with Système International (SI) units expressed secondarily (in parentheses). In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI may be presented in the footnote or legend to economize space. Exceptions to this policy include calories, hematocrit, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and ejection fraction, for which conventional units alone should be expressed. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume.


Names of Drugs, Devices, and Other Products: use nonproprietary names of drugs, devices, and other products, unless the specific trade name of a drug is essential to the discussion.


Gene Names and Symbols: consult the Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee site for gene names and symbols ( ).


Acknowledgment Section


The “Acknowledgment section” is the general term for the list of contributions, credits, and other information included at the end of the text of a manuscript but before the references. The Acknowledgment section includes authors’ contributions; information on author access to data; disclosure of potential conflicts of interests, including financial interests and relationships; sources of funding and support; an explanation of the role of sponsor(s); information on independent statistical analysis (if required); names, degrees, and affiliations of members or participants in a large study or other group; any important disclaimers; information on previous presentation of the information reported in the manuscript; and the names, degrees, affiliations, and indication if compensation has been received for all persons who have made substantial contributions to the work but who are not authors; whether informed consent was obtained from patients to publish descriptions, photographs and/or pedigrees.

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Conflict of interest: a conflict of interest exists when an author or the author's institution has financial or personal relationships with other people or organisations that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions. Financial relationships are easily identifiable, but conflicts can also occur because of personal relationships, academic competition, or intellectual passion. A conflict can be actual or potential, and full disclosure to the Editor is the safest course. All submissions to AfJHO must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Editor may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions, and will publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. Examples of financial conflicts include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications, and travel grants, within the past 3 years. If there are no conflicts of interest, authors should state that they have none. The corresponding author should state that he or she had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.

For some submission categories such as Reviews and Health-care Development, AfJHO will decide not to publish if an author, within the past 3 years, and with a relevant company or competitor, has any stocks or shares, equity, a contract of employment, or a named position on a company board; or has been asked by any organisation other than AfJHO to write, be named on, or to submit the paper.


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These should be in the Vancouver style (i.e. guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors). The references should be typed entirely double-spaced, numbered consecutively in the order in which they first appear in the manuscript and presented in superscript within the text. References that apply to tables or figures should be numbered in sequence where the text first refers to the table or figure concerned. Each numbered reference should give the last names, initials, without punctuation, of all authors if six or fewer. If there are more than six authors, provide the first three authors and et al. Titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the Index Medicus style. Do not use boldface or underlining when typing references. Please ensure that reference numbering throughout the manuscript is not inserted with electronic referencing software, such as Endnote, because this can cause problems editing the paper for publication. All references must be verified by the author(s) against original documents.


Avoid using abstracts, “unpublished observations” and “personal communication” as references. References to written, not verbal, communications may be cited only in the text as parentheses, not as a formal reference; and even for this an author should get permission from the source to cite personal communication, identified by year e.g. (Othieno-Abinya NA, 2007, personal communication). Manuscripts accepted but not yet published may be used only if designated followed by “in press”. Information submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” (in parentheses). While all necessary references should be cited, it is preferable not to use an excessively large number. The references used must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. Examples of correct forms of references are: (1) Standard Journal Article such as references 1 and 2 in the References Section; (2) Book such as “Moscinski LC. Hemopoiesis and Aging. In: Balducci L, Lyman GH, Ershler WB. Comprehensive geriatric oncology. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publisher; 1999:399–412”; (3) Published Proceedings Paper such as “Elting LS, Rubenstein EB, Martin CG, et al. Risk and outcomes of clinically significant thrombocytopenia in patients with solid tumors. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Denver, Colorado. 1997”.


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Tables should bear Arabic numerals. Each table should be put on a separate sheet of paper (using page break function). Each table should be self-explanatory, with an adequate title (clearly suggesting the contents), and logical presentation of data. The title should not repeat the information given in the headings. Use tables in order to present the exact values of the data that cannot be summarized in a few sentences in the text. Use tables instead of case reports unless a very small number of cases are presented. Avoid repetitive words in the columns: these should be coded, and their explanations given in the footnotes. Never present the same data in more than one way: present them in a table OR a figure. Data should be organized so that related elements read downward, not across. The data arranged in columns should correspond to the time sequence of their collection when read from left to right such as: Age→ Sex→Symptoms→ Physical findings →Radiographs →Treatment →Outcome. Each column heading for numerical data should include the unit of measurement applied to all the data under the heading. Choose suitable units, so that the values given in the table should fall within the range 0-999. Large numbers can be expressed in smaller units with appropriate column headings (or footnotes). Headings such as “×103” for thousands should be avoided, as it is not clear whether the data given are to be or have already been multiplied by that factor. The precision of biological measurements seldom allows for more than 2 decimal digits. Tabular footnotes should be indicated with superscript lowercase letters. Use table grid option in MS Word for table lines (both vertical and horizontal). Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations that are used in each table.


Number all tables in the order of their citation in the text. Include a title for each table (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words). Include all tables in a single file following the manuscript. Refer to Submission Categories because there may be a limit on the number of tables for the type of manuscript. If a table must be continued, repeat the title on a second sheet, followed by “(cont).”


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Instructions for Figures


Diagrams, line drawings and photographs should be referred to as figures. They should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Legends to figures (captions) should be listed on a separate page, in the consecutive order. The legend of a figure should contain the following information: (a) the word “Figure”, followed by its respective number; (b) figure title - a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words (do not put the title of the figure on the figure); (c) all the necessary explanations of symbols and findings, written continuously; for photomicrographs, include the type of specimen, original magnification or a scale bar, and stain; for gross pathology specimens, label any rulers with unit of measure; (d) statistics. 


Several figures related to the same patient, e.g. radiographs taken at different times, should be labeled Figure 1 A, B, C, etc. rather than Figures 1, 2, 3. Symbols should be consistent throughout a series of figures. Use simple symbols, like closed and open circles, triangles and squares. Different types of connecting lines can be used. The meanings of symbols and lines should be defined in the legend. The axes should be equal in length so as to make the diagrams square. They should normally be thinner than curve lines. Each axis should be labeled with a description of the variable it represents. Only the first letter of the first word should be capitalized. The labeling should be parallel with the respective axis.


All units should be parenthesised. Make liberal use of scale markings, directed outwards. Axes should not extend beyond the last numeral, and should never be terminated by arrows. Choose units so that the values expressed may fall within the between 0 and 999. All the values on a given axis should have the same number of decimals. If an axis is labeled in percentages, this should be indicated. If an axis is not continuous, this must be indicated by a clearly marked interruption.


Figures should be drawn professionally. Photographs must be sharp and glossy or delivered in high-quality electronic format. All micrographs must include a bar to indicate the scale. Graphs or charts must be provided as complete files e.g. complete MS Excel files. Do not draw three-dimensional graphs if not absolutely necessary. Do not shade the background. Do not use grids. Most figures are properly presentable in column width, i.e. 7.9 cm. Suitable line thickness for this format is 0.17-0.35 mm, and suitable type size for capital letters is 10 points. Radiographs should be cropped so as to present only what is essential. It is rarely necessary to show normal radiographs, even for the purpose of comparison. Frontal and lateral projections should be of the same scale and density, and corresponding details (e.g. joint space) should be at the same level.


Number all figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) in the order of their citation in the text. For initial manuscript submissions, figures must be of sufficient quality for editorial assessment and peer review. All graphs, charts, illustrations, titles, and legends of accepted manuscripts will be re-created or edited according to AfJHO style and standards prior to publication. Digital images in accepted manuscripts will be reviewed to determine whether they have undergone improper modification .

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Advice on preparing digital images: file names should be alphanumeric. Do not include any spaces or special character. The best file format is TIFF. We cannot accept PowerPoint files; also, files saved in TIFF format from Power Point application are not at sufficiently high resolution to meet our formatting requirements. Submitted digital halftones of black and white photographic images must have an image resolution of at least 300 dpi at publication size. To check the size and resolution of the image in Adobe Photoshop, select “Image Size” in the “Image” menu. Make sure the “Resample Image” box in “Image Size” dialog window is not checked and the “Width,” “Height,” and “Resolution” boxes are linked by the graphic chain (It may be necessary to click twice on the “Resample Image” box to establish this link). This will mean that no resolution (i.e. dots or data) is lost when reducing the dimensions of an image and that the machine does not add dots to an image when increasing its dimensions. Set the print size to the desired size of the image in the printed journal and make sure that the resolution at this size is equal to or above 300 dpi. Please submit in the TIFF format by selecting this choice in the format box of the “Save” dialog window. The resolution for color images should also be at least 300 dpi. Please submit files in RGB format. For published manuscripts, image files will be posted online in their original RGB format, maintaining the full color of your original files. When saving, always embed any ICC profile you have worked with. All profiles will be accurately converted to Adobe RGB. If possible, we recommend that authors use Adobe RGB when preparing files. Note that we will still need to convert all RGB files to CMYK for printing on paper and color shifts may occur in conversion.

You can view an approximation of print results by converting to CMYK in Photoshop or Illustrator. For line art, vector files should be created in an illustration program such as Adobe Illustrator and should be saved and submitted as EPS (Encapsulated PostScript). Only Times, Helvetica, Arial, or Symbol fonts should be used. Using other fonts may result in lost or improperly converted characters. All color art should be in RGB format. For figures with a combination of photographs and line art, prepare photographic image files in Photoshop as above at 300 dpi as described above. Prepare line art in Illustrator as above (if you will be importing color images, be sure to create an RGB Illustrator file). Image files should be placed into the file containing the line art. Always embed images, never link. In Illustrator, copying and pasting or dragging directly from Photoshop will embed the image. If you use the “Place” command, be sure to uncheck “Link” in the dialogue box. If you use another illustration program, please refer to the specific documentation for that application (generally there will be a “link,” “proxy” or “OPI” option on import which should be unchecked). Save as EPS, always embedding any color profile used. We recommend Adobe RGB.


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Acceptable Figure File Size And Formats: to reduce the time that it takes to upload files to the AfJHO submission site and for reviewers to download files from the site, we recommend that the file size of figures be compressed before uploading them. This can be done by using compression software or by decreasing the resolution of individual files. At submission, the following file formats are acceptable: AI, BMP, DOC, EMF, EPS, JPG, PDF, PPT, PSD, TIFF, WMF, or XLS. Figures may be embedded at the end of the manuscript text file or loaded as separate files for submission purposes.


Number of Figures: refer to Categories of Articles as there may be a limit on the number of figures for the type of manuscript.


Video: file formats acceptable at submission are MOV, AVI, MPEG, RM, and WM, and the file size should not exceed 5 MB with a maximum dimension of 800 pixels wide and/or 600 pixels deep.






The language of the AfJHO is English. The Editors retain the customary right to style and, if necessary, shorten texts accepted for publication. This does not mean that we prefer short articles but rather a resection of the obviously redundant material. The past tense is recommended in the Results Section. Avoid using Latin terms; if necessary, they should be added in parentheses after the English terms. Real names rather than “levels” or “values” should refer to parameters with concrete units (e.g. concentration). Above all, the author should have in mind that his/her article is intended for a general readership as well.


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Editorial research


We are keen to better understand and improve editorial conduct, decision making, issues related to peer review and communication of science in general. Therefore, we occasionally take part in or conduct editorial research and your submitted manuscript might be used in such research. If you do not want your manuscript entered into such a study please let us know in your submission letter. Your decision to take part or not will have no effect on the editorial decision on your manuscript.




Sometimes editors make mistakes. When we do, we like to hear about them. If an author believes that an editor has made an error in declining a paper, we welcome an appeal. In your appeal letter, which should be sent to the Editor, please state why you think the decision is mistaken and set out your specific responses to any peer reviewers' comments if those seem to have been the main cause of rejection. At least two editors decide whether to invite a revised manuscript and whether re-review, or otherwise, is indicated.


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 Communicating with the Editorial Office


We encourage contributors to communicate with the editorial office using e-mail ( Other forms of communications are also acceptable.





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